Nyamuragira,also known as Nyamulagira, is a shield volcano located 9 miles (14 km) northwest of Nyiragongo. Information Contacts: Andy Harris, Eric Pilger, and Luke Flynn, HIGP/SOEST, University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822; MODIS, Vincent Salomonson (Team Leader), NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 974, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA; Jim Smith, US Agency for International Development / Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance, 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20523-8602 USA (URL: https://www.usaid.gov/who-we-are/organization/bureaus/bureau-democracy-conflict-and-humanitarian-assistance/office-us); Hiroyuki Hamaguchi, Research Center for Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 Japan; Akumbi Mbilizi, Observatore Volcanologie de Goma, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Natulles (CRSN), Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo; Reuters News Service (URL: http://www.reuters.com/). Once formed (by 1 November 2014), the lava lake was described as deep-seated and formed in a pit within the caldera's central N to NE area (Campion, 2014; Smets and others, 2014). An image of the active crater taken on 9 May 2018 showed the lake filled with fresh lava and two adjacent incandescent spatter cones (figure 77). Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. A new vent, SW of Mikombe, opened on 23 October [see also 17:1] and, as of 31 October, activity continued to increase at both vents. The SO2 gas was most concentrated around the eruption site and thinned as it moved away. OVG reported the new lava emissions beginning on 14 April 2018 as appearing from both the lava lake and a small adjacent spatter cone (figure 74). An eruptive fracture, ~ 2 km long, was found on the N-NW flank of the volcano. The Agence Zairoise de Presse (AZAP) news agency reports that an eruption from the N side of Nyamuragira began at 2100 on 30 January. This flow was still moving S about 0900 on 11 March. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country’s border with Rwanda. A slow decline in activity began on 13 August, but continued from three small Strombolian vents until the eruption stopped.
The strength of these thermal anomalies noticeably decreases briefly in September. The authors of this article did not mention the situation at the volcano. Seismic swarm, then lava flow from N flank fissure vent. Instrument and access issues in January 2019 prevented accurate assessment of seismicity for the month. While the intensity of the lava flows lessened, registered seismic activity was at similar levels to December, before the eruption began. A fresh outbreak of long-period earthquakes was noted in the NE quadrant during the week of 1-8 March, along with the growing presence of short-period events. Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); US Air Force Weather Agency; TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group; UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA); Associated Press.
Scientists who visited the Nyiragongo summit crater on 22 and 24 March saw intense fumarolic activity in the summit crater of Nyamuragira through binoculars. Cinders and lapilli fell within a 1 km radius of Murara, and a lava flow (flow 2, figure 1) moved southward from a breach in the SW wall of the crater. Nyamuragira is a shield volcano and one of Africa's most active. No events were observed in October. Thermal events occurred during 10–15 December and on 22, 24, and 31 December 2014. On the 24th at 1418, three lava fountains emerged from a fissure on the SSE flank of the volcano. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with its steep-sided neighbor Nyiragongo. The lava flowing down the mountain threatened both the roads running N from Goma and a wide area of the rebel-held territory that lies near the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Rwanda. During 3-23 November, magmatic seismicity was more prevalent than tectonic seismicity, the latter dominated by aftershocks of the 24 October earthquake. | March. Two volcanic cones were visible growing on the eruptive fracture. Seen from ~ 30 km S of the volcano in Goma, the eruption site appeared to be located on the S flank; intense red glow suggested typical lava fountains and lava flows. Flows made an intricate delta below the lower cone, turning onto a very wide lava flow that covered an area with a total length estimated to be ~ 12 km. GVO observed the beginning of a new eruption at 2000 on 27 November 2006 (figure 25). 03/1971 (CSLP 31-71) Eruption started on 24 March from the S flank, 04/1971 (CSLP 31-71) Lava flows and widespread tephra deposition, 12/1976 (NSEB 01:15) Lava eruption from new SW flank crater on 23 December, 02/1977 (NSEB 02:02) Additional information about late-December 1976 activity, 03/1977 (NSEB 02:03) Lava flows from a new cone on the S flank, 01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Lava flowing northward, 02/1980 (SEAN 05:02) Hot tephra and gases kill livestock and plants, 03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Large lava flows and new cone on N flank, 12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Fissure eruption; lava flow and tephra column, 01/1982 (SEAN 07:01) 30 km lava flows; heavy tephra falls, 02/1984 (SEAN 09:02) Lava flows from NW flank, 03/1984 (SEAN 09:03) Large lava flows and tephra ejection from flank fissure, 07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) Reported S-flank eruption, 08/1986 (SEAN 11:08) SSW flank fissure eruption feeds 17 km lava flow, 08/1987 (SEAN 12:08) Correction to July 1986 eruption site, 01/1988 (SEAN 13:01) Lava flow and fountaining, 02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Seismic swarm, then lava flow from N flank fissure vent, 04/1989 (SEAN 14:04) Lava erupts from summit and E flank, 05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Inflation precedes fissure eruption; large lava flows, 09/1989 (SEAN 14:09) Landsat data suggest continuing activity at April vent, 09/1991 (BGVN 16:09) Lava flows and plumes reported, 10/1991 (BGVN 16:10) Earthquake swarm, then fissure eruption feeds lava flows, 01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) More information and map of late-1991 fissure eruption, 06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Continued lava production from fissure vents, 07/1992 (BGVN 17:07) NE-flank fissures continue to produce lava, 08/1992 (BGVN 17:08) Intermittent lava extrusion and ash emission from several vents, 09/1992 (BGVN 17:09) Continued lava production from fissure vent, 06/1994 (BGVN 19:06) Ash emission from new vent on W flank, 07/1994 (BGVN 19:07) High lava fountains feed lava flow on NW flank, 08/1994 (BGVN 19:08) Summit caldera observations, 01/1996 (BGVN 21:01) High levels of seismicity during September 1995, 10/1996 (BGVN 21:10) August seismic buildup and a 1 December eruption, 10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Flank lava flow in October; TOMS data, 01/2000 (BGVN 25:01) As 27 January eruption began, witnesses assumed they heard artillery fire, 01/2001 (BGVN 26:01) Lava flows began erupting in early February; one injury reported, 03/2001 (BGVN 26:03) Volcanism that began on 6 February 2001 continued into March, 12/2001 (BGVN 26:12) MODIS data for February 2001 eruption; no January 2002 eruption, 07/2002 (BGVN 27:07) Eruption began on 25 July and continued through at least early August 2002, 10/2002 (BGVN 27:10) Multi-vent eruption, 25 July-27 September 2002; regional earthquake, 01/2003 (BGVN 28:01) Infrared satellite data from the 25 July 2002 eruption, 08/2003 (BGVN 28:08) Rumbling and explosion sounds April-June, but no confirmed eruptions, 09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) Long-period earthquakes and swarms in July 2003, 10/2003 (BGVN 28:10) Long-period earthquake swarms, 12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) Political instability limits field access; growing seismicity, 04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) New eruption on 8 May spawns cones, lava lake, fountains, and lava flows, 05/2004 (BGVN 29:05) During 26 May-1 June observers noted weak eruptions and local ashfall, 01/2006 (BGVN 31:01) To the N, swarms of long-period, along-rift earthquakes, 01/2007 (BGVN 32:01) October seismic swarm followed by the eruption of 27 November 2006, 03/2007 (BGVN 32:03) November 2006 eruption produces extensive lava flows, 08/2010 (BGVN 35:08) January 2010 flank eruption produces a new cone and 12-km-long lava flows, 03/2014 (BGVN 39:03) Eruption during 6 November 2011 to April 2012; pit crater morphology changes, 01/2015 (BGVN 40:01) April 2011-January 2015: Lava fountains; and by 1 November, a lava lake, 06/2017 (BGVN 42:06) Large SO2 plumes and intermittent lava lake during 2013-2017, 11/2017 (BGVN 42:11) Thermal activity decreases and ends in May 2017, 05/2019 (BGVN 44:05) Lava lake reappears in central crater in April 2018; activity tapers off during April 2019, 12/2019 (BGVN 44:12) Strong thermal anomalies and fumaroles within the summit crater during June-November 2019, 06/2020 (BGVN 45:06) Intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020, Eruption started on 24 March from the S flank, Card 1161 (29 March 1971) Eruption started on 24 March from the S flank, "An eruption started 24 March 1971 on the south slopes of Nyamuragire volcano.". Nyiragongo eruptions are extremely hazardous because the lava tends to be very fluid and travels down the slopes of the volcano quickly. The primary source of information for this June-November 2019 report comes from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data and imagery from multiple sources. On 6 August only the lower part of the fracture was active; a cone (several hundreds meters long, ~70 m high) contained three very active lava fountains ejecting scoria to an altitude of ~100 m. From a breach in the lowest part of the cone (on the S), very fast moving lava flowed NE. According to reports from the Goma Volcano Observatory, since late October 2002 tectonic and magmatic seismicity at Nyamuragira has continued. Lava lake. . Bukavu, DR Congo; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sergio Maguna (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sergio.maguna.9, images posted at https://www.facebook.com/sergio.maguna.9/posts/1267625096730837). Landsat data suggest continuing activity at April vent. Denaeyer M E, 1969. No further activity was reported through November 2017. Bukavu, Zaire. Few hotpots were visible SE of the summit on 1 and 2 February, though visual observations by helicopter confirmed that no more lava was emitted. The last alerts around the summit area had occurred on 2 February 2010. In March, activity resumed at the S end of the fissure along a branch that trended E from the initial vent, successively building cones 11, 12, and 14. A report by Dario Tedesco stated that in March 2012, a series of explosion earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory. After this point the size and intensity of the anomaly rapidly diminished (detected anomalies after mid-August were no more than 8 pixels in size). The following from N. Zana supplements the reports in 16:9-10. Further Reference. An approximately 7x5 km large hot spot was detected on 7 February 7-10 km N of the summit. Seismic records indicated that the eruption began at about 1310. Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). By this time, a total of three cones had formed. Spasmodic tremor was recorded on 19 and 23 February, lasting several tens of minutes. Thermal anomaly data from MIROVA suggest a pulse of activity during late April through early June 2016 (figure 62 D). When a hot-spot is detected in more than one pixel, the total VRP is calculated as the sum of all pixels detecting a hot-spot. The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Volcanic Emissions Group reported that sulfur-dioxide clouds were visible on TOMS satellite imagery since the eruption began on 8 May, although some of the gas may be attributed to emissions from neighboring Nyiragongo (~13 km SE from Nyamuragira). A recent report from Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) noted a seismic swarm from Nyamuragira during 23-27 January and increased seismicity along the East African Rift since then. A reconnaissance flight over the volcano on 9 May revealed an active lava lake in the NNE part of the Nyamuragira caldera. Preliminary analysis indicated an SO2 mass of ~125-140 kilotons (kt) in the 26 July cloud, with the highest SO2 concentrations (peaking at ~100 milli atm cm or Dobson Units) recorded in a ~400-km-long and ~300-km-wide segment of the plume extending WSW from the volcano across the DR Congo. Periodic field surveys at Nyamuragira have been carried out since 2009 by helicopter, thanks to the support of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO). The caldera, East- ern Pit Crater, fissure and northerly vents are marked in black. The plume first traveled W, then curved along an arc progressing in a clockwise direction toward the NE and then E. It remained clearly detectable over NW India, a distance of ~ 9,000 km. More than 300 events were recorded until at least 28 October. During some eruptions, lava lakes are formed within the caldera. A photograph posted 16 September 2017 shows volcanologist Dario Tedesco on the crater rim surrounded by plumes of steam (figure 72). [The deformation caused geologists to expect either a rejuvenation of the lava lake or future eruptive activity in the central crater.]. In early May, activity moved to the N end of the fissure, as a NE branch developed and formed vents 15-17. The lava lake remained active with periodic surges of thermal activity during November 2018-March 2019 (figure 82). Congo reported that the intensity of the lava flows decreased in March, but there was a large amount of smoke and relatively high seismic activity. This also established a narrow access route for later use. The last 3 occurred within the past 1800 years. It is also a few kilometers from mountain Nyiragongo which killed a lot of people in Goma when it erupted in 2002. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. Between 6 and 12 July, seismicity was dominated by LP earthquakes NE of the volcano and SE along the fracture zone between Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo. The earthquakes at Nyamuragira have been deep, between 15 and 20 km. Satellite images in December as late as the 5th indicated reasonably dense plumes to ~12 km altitude. Mus Roy Afr Centr, Tervuren (Belg), Dept Geol Mineral, Rapp Ann 1977, p 157-175. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. An SO2 cloud probably associated with the February 2001 eruption of Nyamuragira was first detected by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on 6 February. Figure 38. Information Contacts: Y. Pottier, IRS; M. Krafft, Cernay; H. Tazieff, CNRS. By the time the eruption ended, 1.5 m of ash and scoria had fallen within 1.5 km of the vents and deposits were more than 0.5 m thick 3-4 km away; only a few cm of tephra fell W of the vents. False eruption report, January 2002. Microtremor amplitude has generally been decreasing since early August after remaining high through July. Six range decrease and three range increase fringes equate to a minimum total LOS displacement of ~ 25 cm. From 30 April until 1 May, it seemed that there was some renewal of activity, but no eruption was detected. As of 1 February lava was moving northward toward the agricultural community of Mweso at what was described as a "quite rapid" rate. Three scoria cones formed adjacent to the fissure during the eruption, and a small lava lake appeared in the center of the largest cone. Two large lava flows moved quickly and joined below the lowest cone to form a main flow. On 6 July 2005, the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) reported that a significant seismic crisis had occurred at Nyamuragira in late June 2005. This activity was characterized by A-type (high-frequency) and C-type (low-frequency) events. Linear phase discontinuities within the caldera suggest possible NNW fissuring in the northern half of the caldera. Zana, N., Kasahara, M., Kasereka, M., Azangi, M., and Wafula, M., 1993, Surface deformations and seismic activities related to the 1991-1992 Nyamuragira eruption: IAVCEI, Canberra Meeting Abstracts, p. 127. Continued lava production from fissure vents. Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Kervyn, F, d'Oreye, N, van Overbeke, A-C, 2010, GORISK: The combined use of Ground-Based and Remote Sensing techniques as a tool for volcanic risk and health impact assessment for the Goma region (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). The caldera area is shown enlarged in the white-boxed inset. Information Contacts: Information contacts:
The eruption's early phases produced substantial lava flows, but since 20 November activity has been characterized by vigorous ejection of bombs, lava fragments, and ash, with lava flows of only limited extent. MODIS instrument infrared data is automatically analyzed with the MODVOLC algorithm, creating alerts for cases with above-threshold thermal emissions. Nyamuragira volcano is an active volcano near the city of Goma of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated about 25 km north of Lake Kivu. A recent article by Tedesco and others (2007) included a geologic map of the region (see Nyiragongo report below). Nyriragongo and Nyamuragira are the only two active volcanoes in the region. The vent propagated S and lava production was confined to a zone just W of the 1905 cone. According to Simon Carn, the orbit of the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) satellite was well-placed over the Nyamuragira region at 1138 on 26 July, and an SO2 cloud associated with this eruption was detected (figure 21). Agence France-Presse reported that ash fell in Goma (30 km S) on 7 January, and that by 8 January a 200-m-wide lava flow had advanced ~7 km. GVO noted that this activity reinforces the likelihood of an eruption in the near future, but volcanic activity would not pose a threat to inhabited areas. Figures 23 and 24 show the number of anomalous pixels and the sum of the radiance for the entire eruptive event. Nyriragongo and Nyamuragira are the only two active volcanoes in the region. The source of the eruption was a 1.5-km-long zone of en echelon fissures, trending roughly N70°W at 2170 m altitude (figure 3). The eruption has built 23 cinder cones along a 2.5-km zone that trends generally NE, ~15 km NE of Nyamuragira caldera and 5 km ENE of the 1957 Kitsimbanyi vent (figure 12 and table 1). Continued high SO2 concentrations over Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (75 milli atm cm) indicated ongoing emissions at the time of the TOMS overpass. After that and during the rest of the reporting interval, SO2 was often elevated. Nyamuragira, Africa's most active volcano, was the subject of recent reports from USAID/OFDA, volcanic observatories and research centers, Reuters news, and satellite remote-sensing observers. About 2 m of scoria and many spindle bombs were deposited within 600-800 m S of the E vents. One lava flow traveled N from the several-kilometer-long fracture, while a smaller one moved S and stopped on the morning of 26 July, when the lava flows were 6-7 km long and ~1 km wide. Night glow disappeared 16-17 March. This report covers activity from early July to the beginning of August 2003. Observations made during a flight over the volcano revealed that there were active lava flows. Around 1700, lava was seen pouring out of a fracture. 2011: November
A mission to Nyamuragira was carried out by helicopter provided by MONUSCO on 20 July 2018; lava lake activity was observed along with gas emissions from the small spatter cone (figure 79). The Lwiro seismological station, 95 km S of Nyamuragira, recorded the onset of volcanic explosions at 1330 on 30 January. 2019: May
Seismicity generally consisted of long-period (LP) earthquakes on the NE side of the volcano. New eruption on 8 May spawns cones, lava lake, fountains, and lava flows. April 2011-January 2015: Lava fountains; and by 1 November, a lava lake. A new flank eruption from started at Nyamuragira on 6 November 2011, from a series of E-W aligned fissures located about 10 km east of the summit caldera. Information Contacts: Card 1164 (01 April 1971) Sergio Bottazi, Gisenyi, Rwanda. All shrubs and trees in the area were stripped of leaves and bark. The eruption was observed in MODIS thermal satellite imagery (1-km2 pixel size). Long-period earthquakes and swarms in July 2003. The Park noted that the vent area was located 12 km ENE of the crater, close to one of the 1989 eruptive sites. In those areas ash and gas caused many people to experience fever, diarrhea, headache, conjunctivitis, and respiratory problems. The next alerts in the summit area appeared on the NE rim on 5 March 2014 and again on 30 May 2014. Activity during 27 October-14 December 2002. This also corresponds closely in time to when the major SO2 emissions captured by NASA also ceased. Bull Volcanol, 47: 79-105. has produced lava fountaining, lava flows, and ash emission. This 2002 eruption started with a few signs in December 2000 where there were a few earthquakes/ volcanic tremors in the region that were prolonged. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. At its farthest extent the cloud was ~750 km wide. One image from 2 February showed a distinct thermal signature interpreted as a hot spot (several pixels in extent) and a possible ash plume trailing off towards the W (see, for example, multichannel color-composite image, number D03304: NOAA-14 POES AVHRR GAC; Channels 3,2,1 at 4-km resolution; acquired at 0456 GMT). Lava flows covered a large area and a substantial quantity of tephra was deposited near the vents. ), Goma, DRC, and Second University of Naples, DISTABIF, Caserta, Italy; GORISK Scientific Team [an International scientific team for the study and monitoring of active volcanoes and their corresponding hazards in the Virunga Volcanic Province] (URL: http://terra.ecgs.lu/rnvt/); Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo (URL: http://virunga.org/); Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov); Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); and Afar Consortium Project (URL: http://www.see.leeds.ac.uk/afar/). . At about 1200 on 23 December, an eruption began from the NE end of a 1-km-long, N45°E-trending fissure on the SW flank of Nyamuragira. The resulting lava flow passed between Kitazungurwa and Rugarambiro cones, diverted around Gitebe cone, and flowed along lava erupted in 1981-82 from Rugarambiro (figure 6). An SO2 cloud was detected extending in several directions from Nyamuragira, containing ~ 30 kt of SO2. The Goma Volcano Observatory reported that a new eruption at Nyamuragira, which began on 8 May at 0548, was marked by strong volcanic tremor. Figure 57 is a time-series plot for Nyamuragira compiled by the MIROVA infrared processing system. For about a month, the park allowed overnight treks to the eruption site. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports. . Anomalies measured on 4 December 2006 (figure 29) appeared along a line nearly perpendicular to a line between the volcanos and about equidistant to the two volcanoes. . Short-period earthquakes associated with fracturing were observed for the first time. Inset in red box: Ikonos image from 2005 showing the southernmost vent of the 1996 eruption aligned NNW-SSE. High lava fountains feed lava flow on NW flank. Nyamuragira is ~20 km NW of Nyiragongo and 40 km NW of the city of Goma, which was devastated by an eruption at Nyiragongo in January 2002. Explosions increased in intensity, sending ejecta 500-600 m high every 2 seconds. Most of the events occurred within a 10 km radius around Nyamuragira's summit caldera and were aligned roughly N-S. References. The most consistent data comes from satellite – thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites. More than 10 times the normal number of volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 11 December from Lwiro (~l00 km SSW of the volcano), and significantly more than the normal number on 12, 21, and 22 December. The refugees thought they were under attack.
The Nyamuragira volcano, in a remote area of the Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga national park, is producing lava fountains reaching up to 400 metres. Paris, serie D, v. 289, p. 809-812. The Goma Volcanological Observatory reported that the Nyamuragira eruption started on 6 February with the opening of two fissures from the summit crater extending to the N and S flanks.
The following report was prepared by Akumbi Mbiligi with additional notes and explanations provided by Hiroyuki Hamaguchi, who has collaborated on Virungan volcano research for over 20 years. Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 corroborated this data, showing strong thermal anomalies within the summit crater during this same timeframe (figure 87). All of the events on the plot that correspond to thermal anomalies are in the categories labeled low, moderate, and high. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. In early December 2011, a new cone formed on a new eruptive fracture to the E; this cone was referred to by scientists as the eastern cone and by locals as "Tuungane" (figure 41). The last eruption of Nyamuragira was in 2006, a VEI 2 event that produced lava flows on the south flank, similar to what is occurring now. Also in March 2012, the morphology of the pit crater began to change (figures 44 and 45). 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