From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The Pacific separates Asia and Australia from the Americas. The Indian Ocean’s deepest point, the Java Trench of Indonesia, reaches 25,344 ft below sea level. [63] The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the South Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. [18] Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands,[19] the Aru Islands,[20] and Papua New Guinea. The largest islands in the Indian Ocean are Sri Lanka and Madagascar, both of which are home to rich ecosystems of diverse and fascinating wildlife. They span over massive distances, separating our continents and playing key parts in the world’s ecosystems and planetary climate. [37], Extending approximately 15,500 km (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean at 60°S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east–west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 km (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia—halfway around the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon. [1] The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 165,200,000 km2 (63,800,000 sq mi)— larger than Earth's entire landmass combined, 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq mi). [34](p53) By 1900 nearly all Pacific islands were in control of Britain, France, United States, Germany, Japan, and Chile.[33]. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. [3] Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, located in the western north Pacific, is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,928 meters (35,853 feet). [51][52], Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. There are about 25,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. [44] Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns. “The Pacific Asian Region: Myth or Reality?”. This huge sea flows through the Bering Strait to connect with the Arctic Ocean, passing through the oceanic territory of both Russia and the United States. They were part of a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would eventually result in the first world circumnavigation. "Pacific history as seen from the Pacific Islands. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". [38] The lowest known point on Earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 m (35,797 ft; 5,966 fathoms) below sea level. 5 6 7. Indian ocean is world's only closed ocean due to it being land locked to its north by the continent of Asia. On Northern and Southern sides, it is further capped by the North and South Arctics. "Problems of Pacific history. [33] After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro negotiated the incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888. What is the largest ocean basin on earth what is the largest ocean basin on earth the world s largest ocean cleanup has largest ocean cleanup largest ocean cleanup What Is The Largest Ocean Basin On EarthWhat Is The Largest Ocean In World Top 10 SpotmydiveWhat Is The Largest Ocean In World Top 10 SpotmydiveTop… Read More » [76] The oldest Pacific Ocean floor is only around 180 Ma old, with older crust subducted by now.[77]. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active month. [21] In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached Japan. It is in the gap between Australia, Asia, North America and Oceania. [59] Salinity also varies latitudinally, reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. Answer. [61], Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some water moves northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turns southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current. The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is mostly bounded by subduction zones. For the region in Colombia, see, Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975), List of ports and harbors of the Pacific Ocean, "Deepest Submarine Dive in History, Five Deeps Expedition Conquers Challenger Deep", "CONFIRMED: Horizon Deep Second Deepest Point on the Planet", "Catholic Encyclopedia : Ferdinand Magellan", https://www.livescience.com/29533-the-worlds-biggest-oceans-and-seas.html, "Library Acquires Copy of 1507 Waldseemüller World Map – News Releases (Library of Congress)", https://www.guampedia.com/ferdinand-magellan/, "Charles Darwin's Travels on the HMS Beagle", "A Physical, Historical, Political, & Descriptive Geography", "This ocean has most of the islands in the world", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, "PWLF.org – The Pacific WildLife Foundation – The Pacific Ocean", "Wind Driven Surface Currents: Equatorial Currents Background", "ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions", Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory – Hurricane Research Division, "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season? The highest point of the Indian Ocean uniformly rests right at sea level, rather than above or below it as a result of geographical influences. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about 32% of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined (148,000,000 square kilometers). The largest region of the Global Ocean, the Pacific Ocean has the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Southern Ocean to the south, Australia, and Asia to the west and the Americas to the east. A large amount of sea ice floats in the Arctic Ocean, helping to regulate Earth’s climate and the temperature of the surrounding waters. While a number of indigenous people inhabit the Arctic, the only people established on the ice of the Southern Ocean are technicians and scientific researchers. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest. 12 different species of mammals inhabit the Arctic, from polar bears and walruses to a variety of majestic whales. List of Oceans Bordering to India and Srilanka to the west, Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the east and Bangladesh to the north, several rivers like the Holy Ganges, Hooghly, Padma, Brahmaputra and more flow into this sea. The Japanese-ruled Northern Mariana Islands came under the control of the United States. At 165.25 million square kilometers (63.8 million square miles) in area, it covers about 46% of the Earth’s water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth’s land area combined. The third largest ocean on Earth would be the Indian Ocean. Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest, reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. To determine the phase of ENSO, the most recent three-month sea surface temperature average for the area approximately 3,000 km (1,900 mi) to the southeast of Hawaii is computed, and if the region is more than 0.5 Â°C (0.9 Â°F) above or below normal for that period, then an El Niño or La Niña is considered in progress.[66]. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current. The largest ocean in the world is the Pacific Ocean. Its average depth is 4,280 m (14,040 ft; 2,340 fathoms), putting the total water volume at roughly 710,000,000 km3 (170,000,000 cu mi). The entire area of the Caribbean in combination with its many islands and the Gulf of Mexico is referred to as the Wider Caribbean. Wiki User Answered . [4] The Pacific also contains the deepest point in the Southern Hemisphere, the Horizon Deep in the Tonga Trench, at 10,823 meters (35,509 feet). All these are actually part of the large world ocean. 2017-02-14 09:26:11 2017-02-14 09:26:11. [1] The centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. (image courtesy of COMET® program) An (almost certainly incomplete) census of broken arrows over water", "U.S. discloses accidents involving nuclear weapons", EPIC Pacific Ocean Data Collection Viewable, NOAA PMEL Argo profiling floats Realtime Pacific Ocean data, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine–oak forests, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pacific_Ocean&oldid=994131366, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Outside the andesite line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand lie outside the andesite line. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the five. Earth’s beautiful oceans are some of the most striking natural features that we can observe and enjoy. Actually, there is only one global ocean, but the various divisions have been recognized historically for geographic, cultural and scientific reasons. [17] Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in 1522. This sizeable body of water would be landlocked if it weren’t for the Strait of Gibraltar, which flows between Morocco and Spain to the Atlantic Ocean. Officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia, the country is an Oceanian country. “Pacific-ing Asian Pacific American History,”, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 06:13. Its mean depth is 4,000 meters (13,000 feet). km, this triangular shaped gulf forms the northeastern part of the Indian ocean. The Mesopotamians were the first in the history of astronomy to keep records of the observed seven moving objects in the heavens – the seven classical planets / Seven Heavens – and they made this connection to their seven seas. The Pacific Ocean meets the Atlantic Ocean south of South America at Cape Horn . [22], In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. However, it receives very little continental drainage as compared to other oceans. For information about seas in general, see ocean List of seas, by ocean Pacific Ocean. [43] The lands around the Pacific Rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes. The bustling South China Sea is the center of various territorial disputes resulting from several Asian countries making overlapping territorial claims. The equator divides the Pacific Ocean into two separate parts – North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific … All of the world’s continents could fit into the Pacific basin. [47], The Pacific Ocean has most of the islands in the world. Sadly, the fur seal population of the Bering Sea was aggressively hunted for their pelts, resulting in the Bering Sea Fur-Seal Controversy of 1886. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the center of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. Covering an area of 2,172,000 sq. [58] Surface water temperatures in the Pacific can vary from −1.4 Â°C (29.5 Â°F), the freezing point of sea water, in the poleward areas to about 30 Â°C (86 Â°F) near the equator. In fact, oceans cover more than 70% of Earth. It is also bounded by the Antarctic Ocean in the south and the Arctic Ocean in the north. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. Known as the largest ocean on Earth, the Pacific Ocean covers more than one-third of the Earth’s surface and nearly half of Earth’s water surface. [48][49][50] The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. [54], Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. Mesopotamia. Their borders are indicated on the world image (above) in varied shades of blue. [79] Overfishing has become a serious problem in some areas. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands in the northwest, the Caroline Islands in the center, the Marshall Islands to the east and the islands of Kiribati in the southeast. The lowest counts of less than 32 parts per thousand are found in the far north as less evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas. It’s so huge, in fact, that its mass makes up half of Earth’s water. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands. The Indonesian Seaway (including the Strait of Malacca and Torres Strait) joins the Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the west, and Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Name of the five oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, and Arctic oceans (arranged in a descending order according to their size). [83] An estimated 80,000 metric tons of plastic inhabit the patch, totaling 1.8 trillion pieces. [65], In the tropical and subtropical Pacific, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects weather conditions. [39][40], Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea (East Sea), Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea (South Sea), Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea (West Sea of Korea). The Bay of Bengal is the largest bay in the world and tenth on our list of top 10 largest seas in the world. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMS Beagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard;[29] HMS Challenger during the 1870s;[30] the USS Tuscarora (1873–76);[31] and the German Gazelle (1874–76). The Gulf Stream originates from there. [51] The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. Ocean currents are like giant conveyor belts flowing through the oceans moving huge amounts of water all the time. Tropical cyclones also form in the South Pacific basin, where they occasionally impact island nations. The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. By contrast, the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size. In 1768, Pierre-Antoine Véron, a young astronomer accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history. Trade, and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur (in Spanish). Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. How Many Oceans of the World Are There? It extends over 2000 kilometres in the north east cost of Australia. The coastline of the Mediterranean Sea stretches for 28,600 miles! It is divided into five smaller oceans. [82] The ever-growing Great Pacific garbage patch between California and Japan is three times the size of France. "The Pacific Age in World History,", "Recent Literature in Discovery History. It is also the deepest ocean on Earth, reaching astounding depths of 36,201 feet in the Mariana Trench. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Its location is between the eastern coastlines of African and Asia and the western coastlines of the American landmass. The Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.[2]. Although the United States gained control of Guam and the Philippines from Spain in 1898,[35] Japan controlled most of the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during the Pacific War; however, by the end of that war, Japan was defeated and the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean. November is the only month in which all the tropical cyclone basins are active. Oceans serve as the planet’s largest habitat and also help to regulate the global climate. It is also the deepest ocean on Earth, reaching astounding depths of 36,201 feet in the Mariana Trench. 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