For several years, Cartwright belonged to a group called the New York Base Ball Club. Rounders become popular in the United States in the early 19th century, where the game was called "townball", "base", or "baseball". Finden Sie private und berufliche Informationen zu Alexander Cartwright: Interessen, Berufe, Biografien und Lebensläufe in der Personensuche von Das Telefonbuch Though the game spread first through the northeastern United States, within 15 years baseball had taken root across the country. To get there, both clubs crossed the river by ferry, then walked to Elysian Fields, a picturesque park and a popular holiday destination. Once the Knickerbockers had agreed upon their rules, they began advertising for games. (December 19, 2020). Alexander Cartwright. The two most well-known stories of baseball’s creation — that of Abner Doubleday in 1839 and Alexander Cartwright in 1845 — are intimately connected: born together in the early 20th century and joined ever since. As a result of his activity, baseball became firmly established in Honolulu well before it was introduced to cities such as Detroit and Chicago. Yet baseball's officials never took any other action to recant the Doubleday myth. He served in several government positions, and helped to establish the islands' library system and one of its foremost hospitals. The Doubleday Myth has been debunked many times. Baseball biographies similar to or like Alexander Cartwright. In August he arrived in San Francisco, but by then the great gold rush was over. Encyclopedia.com. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1845, some members of that group joined with others and organized a new group, the Knickerbocker Club. During the Civil War, troops played baseball during breaks in combat. The first organized baseball team needed an opponent, so the Knickerbockers advertised for games. A member of the ScaleLab Kite-surfing community. Cartwright later traveled west across the United States, spreading the game as far as California and Hawaii. During that time he helped to establish the game of baseball in that city. Encyclopedia of World Biography. ." Although he was an inductee of the Baseball Hall of Fame and he was sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball," the importance of his role in the development of the game has been disputed. Under the leadership of Cartwright and the other Knickerbockers, baseball soon became a favorite pastime for many young New York men. Encyclopedia.com. Cartwright's grandson gave the Hall of Fame his grandfather's diaries as well as news clippings and other items that substantiated the role of Cartwright and the Knickerbockers in codifying many of the game's most important rules. In 1845, 25-year-old Cartwright—known to his friends as Alick—proposed that the group create an organized club. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. British Origins. It was adapted from rounders and gradually shaped into a distinctive American sport. It was also sometimes called "base ball." Cartwright war verheiratet und hatte fünf Kin… Kagan, Wendy "Cartwright, Alexander Kagan, Wendy "Cartwright, Alexander Omissions? Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is referred to as a "father of baseball". Although he was an inductee of the Baseball Hall of Fame and he was sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball," the importance of his role in the development of the game has been disputed. Alexander Cartwright is considered by some to be the true father of the sport of baseball, although his story may be as much of a myth as that of Abner Doubleday inventing the game in the pastoral setting of Cooperstown, NY.According to The Baseball Book, "Cartwright, a surveyor, laid out the field with the bases 90 feet apart and drew up rules (including … Cartwright never returned to the mainland to witness the spread of the game that he was so instrumental in popularizing. The more genteel activities of tagging a runner with the ball, or getting the ball to a base before a runner reached that base, became the accepted ways to retire a runner. by Alexander J. Cartwright. Notable Sports Figures. In 1842 he married Eliza Ann Gerrits Van Wie, who hailed from an old Dutch family near Albany. Cartwright served as umpire in a game that saw the Knickerbockers lose 24-1. He took a baseball with him, and as he crossed the country by train, wagon, and on foot he spread the word about the burgeoning sport and the Knickerbocker rules … When Cartwright arrived in San Francisco, the Gold Rush was over; he stayed only six weeks, but in that short time he did much to spread the word about baseball in that city. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/alexander-cartwright. …1845, according to baseball legend, Alexander J. Cartwright, an amateur player in New York City, organized the New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, which formulated a set of rules for baseball, many of which still remain. Peterson, Harold, The Man Who Invented Baseball, Scribner, 1973. Neither Cartwright nor Doubleday can truly be credited with inventing baseball—which traces its roots back to a centuries-old English children's game known as "rounders"—yet it was Cartwright who founded the first official baseball club, the Knickerbockers, in 1845, and who published the first set of formal rules for the game in September of that year. As far as the length of the game, it was not until 1857 that a convention of ball players decided upon nine innings; up until then, the first team to score 21 runs was generally the winner. who wrote in his diary that he was one of the best Knickerbocker players, did not play in the first game. Cartwright’s plaque in Cooperstown calls him the “Father of Modern Base Ball” and states that he: “Set bases 90 feet apart. A kind of Johnny Appleseed of the sport, Cartwright helped spread the game as he traveled across the country by train, covered wagon, and foot. Thus was born the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, named after a disbanded firefighter company where Cartwright had once volunteered. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Baseball Hall of Fame. "Alexander Cartwright Knickerbocker Rules. Cartwright, ." Rounders become popular in the United States in the early 19th century, where the game was called "town ball", "base", or "baseball". "The Doubleday Myth," The Bench Warmer,http://thebenchwarmer.tripod.com/doubleday.htm. http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/cartwrigs.html (October 4, 2002). Cartwright remained with the Knickerbockers for four more years, during which the team played many other games with the New York Nine and other local clubs. Since the Hall of Fame was set to open in 1938, the story was a convenient fabrication—it posited that the museum was located in the birthplace of baseball, and that its opening would be a centennial. Ironically, the Knickerbockers lost the game, under the rules they had invented, by the decisive score of 23 to 1. Some of the rules attributed to Alexander Cartwright are: (1) a runner being touched with a ball, rather than hit with it to be considered out; (2) a ball being determined foul if outside the range of first or third base; and (3) one of the most debated of the “Cartwright rules,” the distance between the bases (paced out in a diamond-shaped format with forty-two paces from home to second base, and forty-two paces … Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. He founded the Honolulu Fire Department and served as the city's fire chief for ten years. The Honolulu-based Hawaiian Islanders…. No single person invented baseball. He was a member of the club’s rules committee in 1848 as well. In 1845 he joined the New York Knickerbockers, a club that played under what were called "New York rules", as distinguished from other clubs that played a … The spectators spend fifty cents to watch New York defeat Brooklyn, 22 – 18. The club adopted these rules in 1845, and they were used in the first baseball game between the Knickerbockers and the Nine’s in Hoboken in 1846, a fascinating fact about Alexander Cartwright.  "Honolulu's Link to Baseball History." Their first opponent was a team called the New York Nine. Notable Sports Figures. The dimensions of Madison Square, where the Knickerbocker Club most often played, necessitated the most important rules. In 1845, Cartwright laid out the key rules of the game, including the dimensions of the field. He made his way across the Great Plains and taught the sport of baseball to locals in many places. He died in Honolulu on July 12, 1898— largely unknown to the outside world. The rules were used as part of Robin Carver’s almanac—Book of Sports—in 1834, and most were maintained in their original form. In March of 1849, the 29-year-old bank clerk, like so many other Americans, followed the California Gold Rush in hopes of making his fortune out west. BaseballLibrary.com. Adults in some colonies, such as Massachusetts, played a version known as "town ball." Yet water travel did not suit Cartwright, who fell ill and disembarked at the Sandwich Islands-known today as Hawaii. The position of shortstop apparently was not solidified until 1849, when it was established as a means of relaying throws from the outfield to the infield. Biography Resource Center. If professional team sports in the United States epitomize the corporatization of athletics, the Olympics, at least in theory,…, Background The real history of the sport was largely lost, but the commission was eager to discredit any link to the British sport of cricket. In the evenings, Cartwright joined other young New York businessmen, lawyers and doctors who got together to play a version of rounders. A strapping, unusually tall man for his day, at 6 feet 2 inches, Cartwright was popular among a crowd of young New York bankers, lawyers, and businessmen, who on fair days after work gathered to play rounders at Parade Ground meadow or at Madison Square. Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond-shaped baseball field , and the rules of the modern game are based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club . Back in New York City, the Knickerbockers and other clubs continued to play, and the game soon became popular all around the country. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Peterson, Harold. Über Jahrzehnte galt Abner Doubledayals Erfinder des Baseballs; erst später wurde dies revidiert und Cartwright als „Vater des Baseballs“ ermittelt. In 1938, Alexander Cartwright received the honor of being inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame for his contributions to the nationally played sport. 19 Dec. 2020 . Naismith, James http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/hofer_bios/Cartwright_Alexander.htm (October 3, 2002). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 2ND. The excess energies of a…, CHAPTER 7 The club played its first official game against the New York Nine at Elysian Fields on October 6, 1845. In the early days of the sport, the game would end when the first team scored a winning 21 runs. The position of shortstop—a player between the second and third bases, whose job was mainly to relay throws from the outfield to the infield—was not instituted until 1849. Alexander Cartwright was born in New York City on April 17, 1820. THE OLYMPICS The son of a marine surveyor. Cartwright's wife and children joined him in 1851. Perhaps more important than Cartwright's creation of the club was the Knickerbockers' official organization of the game with a constitution and bylaws. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. On March 1, he headed west, never to return to New York. When Cartwright's descendants heard about the Doubleday story, they registered a protest. Naturally, Cartwright taught baseball to the islanders and formed Hawaiian baseball clubs—which explains why the sport took hold in Honolulu even before it became established in cities like Philadelphia and Chicago. Alexander Cartwright Quotes. The commission ignored facts about baseball's true origins because it was determined that a genuine American hero be credited with inventing the national pastime. However, the newspapers of the era carefully toed the official line because so much publicity had already been disseminated about Doubleday. That year, he was elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame for originating the sport's basic concepts. Cartwright was appointed secretary and vice-president of the club when it wrote down a formal constitution in September of that year. In 1846, Cartwright and other members of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club played the first recognized baseball game in Hoboken, New Jersey, at a park called the Elysian Fields. This was just the beginning of many games that would be played between … In fact, the general's connection to baseball was so tenuous that most historians believe he never even attended a game. While Cartwright played a role in its burgeoning popularity, it was the American Civil War (1861-1865) that prompted the game's growth as a national pastime. Baseball was based on the English game of rounders. Encyclopedia.com. The first diamond he laid out is now called Cartwright Field. Established 9 innings as game and 9 players as team.” Did he actually do those things? □. A surveyor by profession, Cartwright was one of the founders of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, an organization of amateur players in New York City. "Alexander Cartwright." Cartwright remained in San Francisco for six weeks, hoping that he still might strike gold somewhere. Deciding to return to New York, he boarded a ship set to sail across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. was one of seven children born to a New York City sea merchant in 1820. The rules of the modern game were thought to be based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, in 1845, although this is disputed. "The Father of Baseball," Hawai'i History Moments,http://www.hawaiianhistory.org/baseball.html. For the first several years of their existence, the Knickerbockers usually played with eight men-three infielders (one standing near each base), three outfielders, a pitcher and a catcher. Founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club in the 1840s. In those years it was not played by factory workers (who had no time or energy after their 12-hour or longer days) but mainly by clerks, attorneys, physicians and businessmen who had time after work to play in the late afternoons. The club members limited the number of bases to four (including home plate), fixed them in the shape of a diamond, and set them 90 feet apart. Alexander "Alick" Joy Cartwright Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is referred to as a "father of baseball". When assembled for exercise, the President, of in his absence, the Vice-President, shall appoint an Umpire, who shall keep the game in a book provided for that purpose, and note all violations of the By-Laws and Rules during … A surveyor by profession, Cartwright was one of the founders of the… The rules of the modern game were thought to be based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, in 1845, although this is disputed. The Sports Archives offers one source, one-click for all Alexander Cartwright, Baseball Video Clips, Photos, Quotes, Alexander Cartwright Memorabilia, Blogs, Audio, and Stats. Cartwright was one of four members who decided upon 14 written rules. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/alexander-cartwright, "Alexander Cartwright Even today, only the most well-versed sports historians and enthusiasts recognize Cartwright as the true father of modern American baseball. "Alexander J. Cartwright," Hickok Sports,http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/cartwrig.shtml. Alexander Joy Cartwright war ein US-amerikanischer Buchverkäufer und freiwilliger Feuerwehrmann, der als Erfinder des Baseball-Spielfelds und der ersten modernen Baseball-Spielregeln gilt. 1861-1939 Notable Sports Figures. . "Alexander Cartwright Among the rules established by Cartwright were the way teams record an out, the diamond shaped layout of the field, and the designation of fair and foul areas. The field at Cooperstown is still called Doubleday Field. Cartwright war als Feuerwehrmann in New York City tätig. 1461-1523), Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Alexander Graham Bell Notebooks Project (1875–), Alexander Mackenzie Becomes the First European to Cross the Continent of North America at Its Widest Part, https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cartwright-alexander, http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/cartwrig.shtml, http://www.totalbaseball.com/history/people/pioneer/carta102/carta102.html, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/alexander-cartwright, 1850-1877: Sports and Recreation: Chronology, Organizes first formal baseball club, the Knickerbockers; draws up first set of baseball rules on September 23, Plays in first recognized modern baseball game, between the Knickerbockers and the New York Nine, on June 19, Leaves New York in March to seek gold in California, Leaves California by boat; arrives in Hawaii in late August, Inducted into Baseball's Hall of Fame for originating the sport's basic concepts, Acknowledged by the U.S. Congress to be the founder of modern baseball. Nor was it Cartwright who established the nine-inning game length, which was created by a convention of players in 1857. By early 1949, Cartwright, like thousands of other Americans, came down with a bad case of gold fever after hearing of the discoveries of gold in California. Cartwright was one of four members who decided upon 14 written rules. Wikipedia. Test your knowledge with this quiz. Born Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. on April 17, 1820 in New York City, Cartwright later in his life was to be recognized as the founder of baseball. Records of the games and of Cartwright's play are unavailable. While working as a bank clerk and volunteer firefighter in New York, Cartwright started playing a popular game known as “town ball” or “base ball.” At the time it was simply a bat and ball played by locals with an informal set of rules that got passed along by worth of mouth. Cartwright was also active in local government. Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond shaped baseball field, and the rules of the modern game are based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club. The club played its first official game against the New York Nine at Elysian Fields on October 6, 1845. Baseball, commonly called America's national pastime, was adapted from a British game known as "rounders." Yes, others were making their own versions of the game at the time, however, the Knickerbockers style of the game was the one that became the most popular. The man who did perhaps the most to formalize and codify modern baseball was one Alexander Cartwright, a New York City banker. http://www.pubdim.net/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/C/Cartwright_Alexander.stm (October 4, 2002). The enterprising man quickly grew prosperous, becoming one of the Honolulu's leading bankers and merchants, and managing the finances of Hawaii's royal family. Alexander Cartwright was soon caught up in the fever of the gold rush, and left for California on March 1, 1849, never to see New York again. Alexander Cartwright is in the Baseball Hall of Fame for founding the sport as we know it, and writing the basic rules back in 1846. But baseball historians dispute whether Cartwright and the other Knickerbocker rule makers really should be credited with these innovations. Other bylaws Cartwright instituted included the diamond-shaped field, the rules of fair and foul territories, and the 90-foot distance between each of the four bases. (The ball used at the time was so light that players could not throw it all the way in from the outfield with one throw.) Cartwright's place in baseball history was ignored for many decades. On June 3rd, 1953, the US Congress officially cited the research of New York City librarian Robert Henderson that clearly proved Alexander Cartwright had "founded" the game of baseball and not Abner Doubleday. Yet he did not abandon baseball; rather, he took it with him. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. . Nucciarone … But he fell ill and was put ashore in Hawaii, then known as the Sandwich Islands. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Rounders was a simplified offshoot of cricket, and it was played primarily by children in Britain and in the British colonies of North America in the 1700s (and later in the United States in the 1800s). Rugby is the only major sport in the world named not for the nature of its primary element, but for the place where the game is reputed to have…, Sources The fabrication took on the status of received truth. The Knickerbocker Rules. Cartwright formalized the modern rules of baseball. Doubleday, however, was never enshrined in the Hall of Fame. Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. On June 19, 1846, the teams traveled from Manhattan across the Hudson River to Hoboken, New Jersey, and played the first recognized baseball game at a park known as the Elysian Fields. 19 Dec. 2020 . Those 1845 rules were taken in part from Robin Carver’s Book of Sports (1834) but were original in some important respects. Yet it was not the Civil War general who laid down the groundwork for America's most popular game. Ask baseball fans the name of their sport's founder, and most will answer "Abner Doubleday." Doubleday myth. Among his stops was Cincinnati, which would be a cornerstone of the National League when it was formed in 1876. Cartwright set up a number of businesses and became a wealthy man as well as a civic leader. One rule eliminated the circular field common to cricket and established fair and foul territory. There were few if any standard rules to the game, and the number of players on a team, the number of bases, and the distances between the bases were largely a matter of local custom or pre-game negotiations. The truth is more complicated. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Cartwright is often credited with establishing the rule that nine players compose a baseball team; however, the Knickerbockers were not consistent with their number of players, which, in a given game, ranged from 8 to 12. Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is one of several people sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball". Union soldiers formed teams and Confederate prisoners picked up the rules of the game; when the soldiers returned home, they took the sport with them. I bet many baseball fans didn't know that, Alexander Cartwright, referred to as a "father of baseball", is buried in Oahu, Hawaii. Er wurde am … Cartwright recovered from his illness and fell in love with the islands. This change made it safer for players to use a harder ball, which led to a faster, more exciting game. This is the less-told story of how the Cartwright Myth came to be, and its ties to the Doubleday Myth. The Man Who Invented Baseball. In all these pick-up games, a pitcher threw a ball, an opponent used a stick or bat to strike it, and then the hitter attempted to run to one or more bases. . Their sport came to be known as the "New York game" to distinguish it from the "Massachusetts game" of "town ball.". With little fanfare, Cartwright was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1939. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. In seiner Freizeit spielte er Baseball und verfasste für den New York Knickerbockers Baseball Club die Baseballregeln. The rules also made the game less rough-and-tumble and more genteel, since they abolished the common practice of soaking or plugging—that is, hitting the runner with the ball to make an out. https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cartwright-alexander, Kagan, Wendy "Cartwright, Alexander But during his lifetime he was never properly credited by organized baseball for his pioneering efforts. In 1845, Cartwright laid out the key rules of the game, including the dimensions of the field. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. ." Cartwright is generally credited with fixing the distance between bases at 90 feet (27.4 metres). He attended school until age 16, when he left to become a bank clerk, and later, a volunteer firefighter. ." The dimensions of Madison Square, where the Knickerbocker Club most often played, necessitated the most important rules. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Biographical Information . Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Alexander Cartwright and the members of his New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, devised the first rules and regulations for the modern game of baseball. Wikipedia. Stepping up to the challenge was a team called the New York Nine. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. His grave has been visited by many famous baseball players, including Babe Ruth. But as a leader of the Knickerbockers, the man who first set down rules in writing, and the game's first traveling ambassador, Alexander Cartwright fully deserves credit as baseball's founding father. 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